A fully coupled atmosphere—ocean general circulation model is used to simulate climate conditions during the last glacial maximum. Forcing conditions include astronomical parameters, greenhouse gases, ice sheets and vegetation. A 50-yr period of the global simulation is dynamically downscaled to 50 km horizontal resolution over Europe with a regional climate model (RCM). A dynamic vegetation model is used to produce vegetation that is consistent with the climate simulated by the RCM. This vegetation is used in a final simulation with the RCM. The resulting climate is 5—10 °C colder than the recent past climate (representative of year 1990) over ice-free parts of Europe as an annual average; over the ice-sheet up to 40 °C colder in winter.